Working with markup tables

OpenTM2 can handle documents that are created by the most popular word-processing systems and a wide range of other document types.

Documents usually are a mixture of text and layout information, which describes the formatting of the document. This layout information is called markup data. It defines, for example, the start of a new page, the start of a paragraph, or character layout like boldness, italics, or underline.

 

Contents

 

In most of the word-processing systems that display a text in WYSIWYG mode (What You See Is What You Get), you usually do not see this markup but only its effects. Some systems allow you to display and check the markup data, for example in WordPerfect with the Reveal codes option.

In other systems that generate the formatting printout in a separate step, you usually edit the markup yourself.

The table that stores the description of the markup data is called markup table in OpenTM2. OpenTM2 needs this markup table to differentiate between the text to be translated and the markup data.

Markup tables are used:

  • During analysis to divide the document into translatable and nontranslatable parts
  • During translation to protect the markup information, so that translators are warned if they try to overtype it

It is important for you to know which markup table is to be used for which type of document. You must tell OpenTM2 what kind of markup table should be associated with a folder or a document.

For more information on associating a markup table with a document see either Changing the properties of a document, or Importing a document.

For information on associating a folder with a markup table, see Creating a folder, or Changing the properties of a folder.

The association of a document or folder with a markup table is essential because the different word processors have different layout descriptions. All these layout descriptions are understood byOpenTM2 and processed in a general way.

Markup table names

The following table shows the available markup table names and the supported document types.

Markup table Type of document
EQFALINE ANSI files in which everything is translatable.
EQFAMI Ami Pro texts (Ami Pro for Windows (R), Version 2.0).
EQFAMRI ANSI files in which translatable text is enclosed in double quotes.
EQFANSI ANSI documents. This markup table is combined with a user exit.
EQFAQUOT ANSI files in which translatable text is enclosed in single quotes.
EQFASCII ASCII files in which everything is translatable.
EQFASM Assembler documents.
EQFBOOK BookMaster (R) and Information Presentation Facility (IPF) texts.
EQFFRBLD FrameBuilder files (Version 5.5).
EQFHTML2 HTML texts (level 2.0).
EQFHTML4 HTML texts (level 4.0). This markup table is combined with a user exit.
EQFINT2 Interleaf files.
EQFLINE ASCII files in which everything is translatable.
EQFMRI ASCII files in which translatable text is enclosed in double quotes.
EQFMSWRD Microsoft (R) Word for Windows (R) documents.
EQFPPT Microsoft (R) PowerPoint (R) documents.
EQFQUOTE ASCII files in which translatable text is enclosed in single quotes.
EQFRTF Rich Text Format (RTF) files coming from Word for Windows (R), Ami Pro, or other word processors.
EQFSGML SGML documents that were designed for processing by Lotus (R) Notes (TM) . Also applies to help texts for programs running under Windows (R) that can be saved as RTF documents.
EQFWP WordPerfect texts (Version 5.0).
EQFWP6 WordPerfect texts (Version 6.0 and 6.1).
EQFUTF8 Unicode document in UTF-8 encoding
LOTUSAMI Ami Pro documents designed for processing by Lotus (R) Notes (TM) .
LOTUSNGD Lotus (R) Notes (TM) documents.
UNICODE Unicode documents in UTF-16 encoding.

OpenTM2 allows you to add more formats. For detailed information on creating external markup tables see Creating a markup table, and Working with external markup tables.

For information on how to use the markup tables and how to prepare the different document types for translation, see Dealing with specific document formats.

Overview and terminology

Markup tables can be exchanged with other users or applications. This may be necessary, when you have changed a markup table for your special translation needs and another translator may want to share your changes for similar translation environments.

To give the markup table to someone else you must transfer it out of OpenTM2. This process is called export. The recipient must import the exported markup table into OpenTM2 again.

Markup tables can also be exchanged via exported folders. When you export a folder with a document using a specific markup table, this markup table is included in the exported folder and can be loaded implicitly during folder import in the recipient’s system.

Markup tables can be changed. You can choose from two methods:

  • One way is to export it from OpenTM2 and to use an external editor to apply the changes. You need to import the markup table into OpenTM2 to use it again, and you need to be familiar with the SGML-based format of the exported markup table.
  • Another way is to change the properties of a markup table without leaving OpenTM2.

Each method has its advantages. See Changing a markup table for the details.

You can also create new markup tables, as described in Creating a markup table. New markup tables also need to be imported into OpenTM2 before they can be used for translations.

What you can do with markup tables

Start the functions related to markup tables from the “Markup Table List” window.

Prerequisites

None.

Calling sequence

Select Display markup table list from the Utilities menu. The “Markup Table List” window is displayed. The window contains all existing markup tables in your system. Most of the actions related to markup tables can be started by selecting a list name and an action from the File menu, such as Delete, Export…, or Import….

Changing a markup table

A markup table can be changed by using two different methods:

  • You can export an existing markup table from OpenTM2’s internal format to an SGML-based external format, which can be edited with any text editor. The contents of an exported markup table are described in terms of SGML statements, so you need to be familiar with SGML. After changes are made you need to import the markup table into OpenTM2 before you can use it again. Follow these steps if you choose this method:
  • Export an existing markup table from OpenTM2, as described in“Exporting a markup table“.This ensures that you start with a markup table that has the correct SGML syntax.
  • Make a backup copy. The original markup tables provided by OpenTM2 cannot be reinstalled.
  • Change and replace the markup data in the exported file as required, as described in Creating new markup tables
  • Before importing the external markup table, consider to rename the file to protect the original markup table until you are finished.
  • Import the external markup table, as described in “Importing a markup table“OpenTM2 performs a syntax check during the import. It does not import an incorrect markup table, so you need to correct it in its external format.Note that an external markup table can be imported either under the old name or a new name.
The disadvantages of this method are that you need to export and import the markup table and that you need to know SGML. Further, no syntax checking is provided (other than OpenTM2 refusing to import an improperly coded markup table).
The advantage is that extensive changes are faster. You can also use tools of choice to automate changes to markup tables, for example word processing macros.
For more detailed information see Working with external markup tables.
  • Within OpenTM2, you can use the “Markup Table Properties” window to change, add, and remove properties of a markup table. The properties comprise all aspects of the content of a markup table. In addition, you can test your modifications immediately, and you can password-protect a markup table.
The advantages of this method are that you do not need to leave OpenTM2 to change a markup table and that less knowledge about SGML is required.
On the other hand, the graphical user interface might not be appropriate for extensive changes.
To actually change a markup table by means of the “Markup Table Properties” window, see Changing the properties of a markup table.

Before you change a markup table provided by OpenTM2, it is recommended to make a backup copy of the original version because the original markup tables cannot be reinstalled.

Creating a markup table

New markup tables can be created by using two different methods:

  • You can create an external markup table in SGML-based format and import it into OpenTM2.
  • Within OpenTM2, you can use the “Markup Table Properties”window to create a new markup table.

Creating a new markup table is similar to changing an existing markup table. Therefore, see Changing a markup table for the details and advantages of both methods. Note that it is often more practical to modify a copy of an existing markup table.

Deleting a markup table

If you no longer need a markup table, you can delete it. For markup tables provided by OpenTM2, it is recommended to create a backup copy by exporting the table, because it cannot be reinstalled separately but only by a system reinstallation.

Prerequisites
  • The “Markup Table List”window must be active.
  • The markup table to be deleted must be selected.
Calling sequence

Select Delete from the File menu.

Options and parameters

Before the system deletes the selected markup table, it asks you to confirm whether you really want to delete it.

If you select No, you will leave the delete function.

If you select Yes, the markup table will be deleted.

Results

If you selected Yes, the markup table is deleted. Otherwise it remains unchanged. References to this markup table may still exist in certain folders. Update the folder properties so that the deleted markup table is no longer associated with a folder.

Exporting a markup table

You can export a markup table to give it to other users, for example, other translators who must use the same modified markup table in their translation environment.

Markup tables can only be exported in external format.

Each markup tag described in the markup table is exported together with its nondefault data. You can find a table that contains the definition of markup table SGML tags and the data defaults that are used for OpenTM2 in Working with external markup tables.

Prerequisites
  • The “Markup Table List”window must be active.
  • The markup table to be exported must be selected.
Calling sequence

Select Export… from the File menu.

The “Export Markup Table” window is displayed.

Eqfb7s12a.gif

Figure 120. Export Markup Table window

Options and parameters
  • Format
External is selected automatically.
  • To
Enter the required parameters where to store the exported markup table:
Select the drive to which you want to export the markup table.

  • Name
Define the file name for the exported markup table.
  • Current directory
Displays the directory selected from the Directories list box.
  • Directories
This list box contains all available directories on the selected drive. Select the directory where to store the markup table.

To start the exporting function, select the Export button.

Results

The selected markup table is exported to the specified file and saved on the selected drive and directory.

Importing a markup table

If another user has prepared a markup table for your translation environment, you must import it in order to be able to use it in OpenTM2.

Markup tables can only be imported in external format.

Prerequisites

The “Markup Table List” window must be active.

Calling sequence

Select Import… from the File menu. The “Import Markup Table” window is displayed.
Eqfb7s12b.gif

Figure 121. Import Markup Table window

Options and parameters
  • Format:
External is selected automatically.
  • From
Specify where the markup table to be imported currently resides and select the drive where the external markup table is stored.

  • Name
Type the name of the external markup table or select the name from the following list boxes.
  • Current directory
Displays the directory selected from the Directories list box.
  • Directories
Select the directory containing the external markup table from the list of directories on the selected drive.
  • Files
Select the file name of the external markup table from the list of names in the currently selected path.
  • To markup table

Contains the name of the selected markup table to be imported. You can overwrite this name to create a new markup table or select a name from the list box to merge your file into an existing markup table.

To start the importing function, select the Import button.

Results

The markup table is now available in OpenTM2, you can start to associate it with documents or folders.

Changing the properties of a markup table

The “Markup Table Properties” window allows you to change, create, test, and protect a markup table without the need to export the markup table to an external format. You can change an existing markup table, which includes the addition, removal, and modification of markup tag definitions and markup attribute definitions. You can create a new markup table from scratch (however, it might be more efficient to choose the external method, as described in Creating a markup table and Changing a markup table). You can dynamically test a markup table against a test document and continue to change it without leaving the “Markup Table Properties” window. And you can password-protect a markup table against unauthorized modifications.

Before you apply any changes to a markup table or attempt to create a new one, you should know its syntax and semantics, as described in Creating new markup tables. Note that most options and parameters on the “Markup Table Properties” window pages have their equivalent SGML tags described in the subchapters of Creating new markup tables.

Before you change a markup table provided by OpenTM2, it is recommended to create a backup copy by exporting the markup table.

Note: The contents of markup tables are sensitive. Improper modifications avoid the correct handling of documents that are associated with them. Apply the password protection to prevent unauthorized modifications.

Prerequisites

The “Markup Table List” window must be active.

Calling sequence

To change an existing markup table:

  • Select a markup table in the “Markup Table List”window.
  • Select Properties from the File menu.

To create a new markup table:

  • Select New… from the File menu.

If an existing name of a markup table is chosen, a warning message is shown.

The “Markup Table Properties” window is displayed.
Eqfb7s12c.gif

Figure 122. Markup Table Properties window

Options and parameters

On the “General” page you can set or change general markup table properties:

  • Name
Contains the name of the markup table being changed. This field cannot be changed if an existing markup table is changed.
The field accepts a markup table name if you started to create a new markup table.
  • Description
Contains a markup table description, which is shown in the “Markup Table List” window.
  • Descriptive name
Contains a descriptive name for this markup table. For example, if Name is EQFBOOK, you could simply describe it as BOOK.
If you create a new markup table, the descriptive name must be unique.
  • User exit
Contains the name of the user exit, if the markup table uses one.If you create a new markup table, and you enter the name of a user exit that does not exist, a warning message is shown.
You can confirm this message to continue.
  • Character set
Contains the specified character set that is to be used for import and export of documents that use this markup table. You can specify ASCII, ANSI, UNICODE, or UTF8.
  • Single substitution character
Contains the substitution character to use for single character substitution. The default character is ?.
If you create a new markup table, the character must be different from that used as multiple substitution character.
  • Multiple substitution character
Contains the substitution character to use for multiple character substitution. The default character is %.
If you create a new markup table, the character must be different from that used as single substitution character.
  • Allow CRLF change
If set to NO, do not allow reflow in the editor.
  • Translator notes
The following fields contain the markup for translator’s notes. Before changing or adding information here you should be familiar with the internals of a markup table and how translator’s notes are added to a source document. For the latter see Including notes for the translator. Note especially that the level 1 and level 2 translator’s note tags are nested between the start tag and end tag. The latter two are usually the annotation or comment tags and have their own definitions in a markup table. If the translator’s notes start and end tags do not match the annotation start and end tags, OpenTM2 fails to properly recognize translator’s notes.

  • Start tag
Contains the start tag that begins an annotation or comment in the source document. For example, :annot for a BookMaster document, or <!- for an HTML document (but not :annot., respectively <!–).
  • Level 1 Note
Contains the level 1 translator’s note tag, for example, trnote1:
  • Level 2 Note
Contains the level 2 translator’s note tag, for example, trnote2:
  • End tag
Contains the end tag that terminates an annotation or comment in the source document. For example, :eannot for a BookMaster document, or — for an HTML document (but not :eannot., respectively –>).

On the “Tags” page you can work with markup tag definitions. On the left of this page you see the list of tags that are defined in this markup table. You can select a tag by clicking it. You can add new tags (by clicking Add new tag) and delete selected tags (by clicking Delete tag). On the right of this page you see the definition, respectively properties, of a selected tag. You can change the properties of a tag by changing the entry fields, by selecting or clearing the check boxes, and by selecting options from drop-down lists.

If you create a new markup tag, you must at least specify the tag string and its delimiter, respectively its length.

  • Tag string
Contains the string that represents the markup tag.
  • End delimiter
Contains one or more characters that end the tag string. Two or more characters cause OpenTM2 to check for all possible combinations of these characters to determine the end of the tag. You cannot specify a string as end delimiter.
Alternatively, you can specify a length that specifies the end of the tag string (see parameter Length).
  • Length
Contains the length of the tag string.
Alternatively, you can specify end delimiters that specify the end of the tag string (see parameter End delimiter).
  • Column position
Contains the column position where the markup tag starts. If a markup tag has no special start position and can occur anywhere in a line, this parameter is omitted or can be set to 0. The default is 0.
  • Tag type
Contains the type of the markup tag, which specifies whether the tag starts or ends a segment and whether the tag influences OpenTM2’s segmentation. See “TYPE” in Markup Table Names for a description of possible selections in the drop-down list.
  • Segmentation flag
Contains a flag for this markup tag that controls OpenTM2’s segmentation and text protection.

  • If segmentation is toggled off, text following this markup tag is not segmented by OpenTM2 until it encounters a markup tag that toggles on segmentation.
  • If text protection is toggled on, text following this markup tag is protected by OpenTM2 until it encounters a markup tag that toggles off text protection.
See “SEGINFO” in SGML tags for markup tags and markup attributes for a description of possible selections in the drop-down list.
  • Text processing flag
Contains a flag for this markup text that specifies how text following this tag is associated with the tag. See “ASSTEXT” in SGML tags for markup tags and markup attributes for a description of possible selections in the drop-down list.
  • Unique ID
Contains a unique ID in the range from 1 to 65565 that is associated with this tag. The use of these identifiers is at your disposal.
  • Additional information
Specifies whether specific text is to be ignored when segments are aligned during the creation of an Initial Translation Memory. See “ADDINFO” in SGML tags for markup tags and markup attributes for a description of possible specifications.
  • Class ID
Contains a class identifier. CLS_HEAD causes this markup tag to become an entry of the table of contents that you can display during the translation of a document using the Special go to…dialog.
  • Tag has attributes
This check box is selected if this markup tag has attributes attached (which requires that these attributes are listed on the “Attributes” page). This parameter is equivalent to the specification of “ATTRINFO” in SGML tags for markup tags and markup attributes.
  • Can contain translator’s notes
This check box is selected if this markup tag can contain translator’s notes. See Translator’s notes in a source document for details.
  • Can contain translatable text
This check box is selected if the segment associated with this markup tag must be translated. This parameter is equivalent to the specification of “TRANSLATEINFO” in SGML tags for markup tags and markup attributes.

On the “Attributes” page you can work with markup attribute definitions. On the left of this page you see the list of attributes that are defined in this markup table. You can select an attribute by clicking it. You can add new attributes (by clicking Add new attribute) and delete selected attributes (by clicking Delete attribute). On the right of this page you see the definition, respectively properties, of a selected attribute. You can change the properties of an attribute by changing the entry fields and by selecting or clearing the check box.

If you create a new markup attribute, you must at least specify the attribute string and its delimiter, respectively its length.

  • Attribute string
Contains the string that represents the markup attribute.
  • End delimiter
Contains one or more characters that end the attribute string. Two or more characters cause OpenTM2 to check for all possible combinations of these characters to determine the end of the attribute. You cannot specify a string as end delimiter.
Alternatively, you can specify a length that specifies the end of the attribute string (see parameter Attribute length).
  • Attribute length
Contains the length of the attribute string.
Alternatively, you can specify end delimiters that specify the end of the attribute string (see parameter End delimiter).
  • Additional information
Specifies whether specific text is to be ignored when segments are aligned during the creation of an Initial Translation Memory. See “ADDINFO” in SGML tags for markup tags and markup attributes for a description of possible specifications.
  • Can contain translatable text
This check box is selected if the segment associated with this markup attribute must be translated. This parameter is equivalent to the specification of “TRANSLATEINFO” in SGML tags for markup tags and markup attributes.

On the “Test” page you can test the markup table. To test a markup table you need to load a test document that contains text that is marked up with tags and attributes. When loaded, the test document is shown in its source form with all markup tags and attributes visible. The test document is analyzed by using the markup table as it is currently defined. As a result of the analysis the contents of the test document is shown with visible distinctions of segments, translatable text, and protected text. You can inspect the test document and decide whether your definitions of markup tags and markup attributes are properly recognized in the test document.

When you test a markup table, you might encounter markup tags or markup attributes in the test document that are not recognized by your markup table. You can add the missing markup tags or markup attributes to your markup table by marking the text section that represents the tag or attribute with the mouse and clicking Add Selection as tag or Add Selection as attribute. This adds a new markup tag or markup attribute to your markup table. When you click Refresh the document is analysed again and the added markup tag or markup attribute should be distinct.

If you encounter markup tags or markup attributes that are improperly recognized during the analysis, you might need to change one or the other property of the affected tag (on the “Tags” page) or attribute (on the “Attributes” page). Thereafter, you can test the effect of the property changes by clicking Refresh on the “Test” page.

  • Load test document
Lets you choose a test document through the operating system’s file open dialog, loads the document, and analyses its content by applying the current markup table definitions. The result of the analysis is shown in the text box on the left.
  • Add Selection as tag
Builds a markup tag from a selected text section in the test document and adds the tag to the markup table. The markup tag is added to the list of tags on the “Tag” page with its default properties.
  • Add Selection as attribute
Builds a markup attribute from a selected text section in the test document and adds the attribute to the markup table. The markup attribute is added to the list of attributes on the “Attributes” page with its default properties.
  • Refresh
Restarts the analysis of the loaded test document and shows the result in the text box on the left. Click this button after you added or deleted markup tags or markup attributes, or changed their properties.
  • Legend
Explains how to interpret markups in the text box. For example, <P> indicates the boundary between segments, and nontranslatable text is marked red.

On all pages of the “Markup Table Properties” window the following buttons are active:

  • Save
Saves the markup table with its current definitions and leaves the “Markup Table Properties” window.
  • Cancel
Leaves the “Markup Table Properties” window without saving the markup table.
  • Protect / Unprotect
Lets you protect or unprotect the markup table by a password against unauthorized changes.If the markup table is unprotected, a Protect button is shown. If the markup table is protected, anUnprotect button is shown.
Clicking the button invokes a Protect, respectively Unprotect dialog that requests a password. Type a password. Remember the password.
Results

The markup table is now available in OpenTM2, you can start to associate it with documents or folders.