Working with dictionaries

A dictionary is a database that contains terms, their translations, and other related information.

OpenTM2 provides a set of bilingual dictionaries with general vocabulary for English, German, French, Spanish, and Italian.

You need dictionaries to look up the translations of individual terms or have these terms displayed automatically in the “Dictionary” window during translation.

A dictionary entry contains all data relating to a term (or headword). The dictionary entry structure describes which data elements can be stored for a term in a dictionary.

OpenTM2 provides a general dictionary structure that you can use as a model for building a dictionary serving your own purposes. Headword and Translation are mandatory fields. Certain entry fields, for example Synonym and Related term, are reserved for search criteria available during lookup in a dictionary.

OpenTM2 can handle dictionaries with simple and complex structures.

The general dictionary entry structure in OpenTM2 is divided into four embedded levels to contain, for example, verb and noun entries, different meanings (senses), and translation variants.

In OpenTM2 a dictionary can have two formats:

  • An internal dictionary is a dictionary that exists in OpenTM2 .
  • A dictionary in external format is an SGML-based data file. SGML is the data exchange format required for importing dictionary data into OpenTM2 . When a dictionary in the internal format is exported, it is automatically converted into SGML. When you import an external dictionary, it is automatically converted to the OpenTM2 format.

All dictionary data in other text-processor or database formats needs to be converted into SGML by, for example, a program or database macro.

You can create your own dictionaries from existing terminology imported into OpenTM2, or from scratch while you are translating.

For more information on the dictionary structure and on how to construct an SGML-based file, see:

Contents

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Dictionary entry structure

A dictionary entry is divided into the following levels:

  • Entry
This level contains general or administrative information, such as the date, author, or origin of an entry, and the headword itself. This information applies to all other levels of the dictionary entry.
  • Homonym
This level contains grammatical and syntactic information, such as which part of speech a headword is or how it is to be abbreviated and hyphenated.
  • Sense
This level contains semantic variations of a headword, such as different areas of meaning and usage.
  • Target
This level contains all information applying to one translation variant of a headword, such as definition or usage. For example, if a headword can be translated in two different ways, there is target level information for both translation variants.

The entry level can have any number of homonym levels. For example, there are separate homonym levels for the noun copy and the verb copy.

A homonym level can also have any number of sense levels depending on the individual definition of a headword or contextual information. For example, the noun bank can mean both the river bank or a financial institution.

A sense level can have any number of target levels depending on the individual translation variants. For example, the German word Schnecke has two English translations, snail and slug.

The entry fields and how they are distributed over the four levels is only suggested by OpenTM2. The entry fields Headword and Translation are mandatory. All other predefined fields can be deleted or renamed. You can even omit particular levels. For example, you can omit the homonym and sense level if you want to have only headwords and translations in your dictionary.

You can also add new fields to any of the levels. You can do this when creating a new dictionary in the “New dictionary” window by selecting Add fields… or by including them in the SGML dictionary file.

For the list of all predefined entry fields and their corresponding SGML tags see List of dictionary-entry fields and their SGML tags.

Dictionary search criteria

To search for one or more dictionary entries, the specified term can be used as one of the following search criteria:

  • Headword
The dictionary entry for the specified term is retrieved.
  • Synonyms
All entries that have the specified term in the synonym field of the dictionary entry are retrieved.
  • Related terms
All entries that have the specified term in the related terms field of the dictionary entry are retrieved.
  • Abbreviations
All entries that have the specified term in the abbreviation field of the dictionary entry are retrieved.
  • Neighborhood
If the specified term exists, it is listed together with terms preceding and following it in alphabetical order. If not, the terms that would precede and follow it are listed.
  • Compounds
All compounds that begin with the specified term are retrieved and displayed as a list. For example, if you search for the term data, the possible compounds that would be retrieved are data processing, data model, and data processing division.

The first four entry fields can only be used as search criteria when they exist at the entry level shown in the following table. The entry fields are:

 

Entry field Level
Headword Entry
Synonym Sense
Other Related Terms Sense
Abbrev./Fullform Sense

In the OpenTM2 default entry structure, these fields are defined at these levels.
If you are importing an SGML dictionary file and want to use any of the above search criteria, see List of dictionary-entry fields and their SGML tags for the SGML tags required.

Overview and terminology

Dictionaries are used during analysis and translation:

  • During the analysis of a document one or more dictionaries can be searched. This is useful to find new terms (terms in the document that are not in the selected dictionaries) or to find found terms(terms in the document that are already in the referenced dictionaries). The new terms can be added to the dictionary to be used during translation. The found terms can be used to fill a dictionary with entries extracted from other dictionaries.
  • During the translation of a document, the “Dictionary”window displays either all translations that are found in the folder dictionaries for the terms in the current segment or only the first translation found. This depends on whether you marked the box on the “Display” page of the “Customize Translation Functions” window.

The properties of a dictionary are its main characteristics such as the source language, the dictionary structure, information on its location, and a brief description of its contents. You can specify them in the “Dictionary Properties” window.

Parts of these properties can also be displayed as details (or view details) in the “Dictionary List” window.

What you can do with dictionaries

OpenTM2 offers several lookup functions for terms in dictionaries and their data:

  • You can search for terms using general search criteria and filters defined by yourself (Look up a Term function).
  • You can display all data of a dictionary entry or parts of it (Lookup Entry function).
  • You can add and change dictionary entries (Edit an Entry function).

OpenTM2 dictionaries can be printed to a printer or to a file. You can select the entry fields to be printed and how to arrange them in the printout. This layout is defined in a print format file. You can also use filters to print selected entries only.

A dictionary can be shared with other users by means of the dictionary export function, or if it has been defined to reside on a shared disk when it was created. If you receive an exported dictionary, you can import it into your system.

During import, you can also merge the contents of one dictionary into another. In addition, you can create dictionaries tailored to suit your own needs. To create a new dictionary, you must determine thedictionary structure, this means, which data elements in a dictionary are important to you. You can start using the OpenTM2 default structure or using other existing dictionary structures that you can subsequently change.

OpenTM2 dictionaries can be protected with a password against unauthorized changes if necessary. Most of the processing functions OpenTM2 offers for dictionaries can be started from the “Dictionary List” window.

Prerequisites

The dictionary must exist (except if you import a dictionary).

Calling sequence

Select:

  1. The “Dictionary List” window in the OpenTM2 main window.
  2. A dictionary with which you want to work.Skip this step when importing or creating.
  3. An action from the File menu.

The “Dictionary List” window is displayed.

This window displays a list of the existing dictionaries. When you select a command from one of the menus, you are taken to another window where you can specify processing options.

Creating an SGML-based dictionary

An SGML-based file contains dictionary data and SGML tags describing the data structure and the relation between the data elements.

SGML-based dictionaries can be created by:

  • The OpenTM2 dictionary export function
  • Data conversion programs or database macros
  • Editing a file (only recommended for small data volumes)

If you have dictionary data in a format other than SGML, you must convert it before you can import it.

Importing the SGML-based file into OpenTM2 (which can be either ASCII, Ansi or Unicode) converts the dictionary into the internal format recognized by OpenTM2.

The structure of an SGML-based dictionary

An SGML-based dictionary is divided into the following:

  1. A header section containing general dictionary information such as source language, target language(s), and creation date.
  2. A maptable section specifying the structure of a dictionary entry. That is, all the entry fields that make up a dictionary entry and the relation between these entry fields.
  3. An entry section with dictionary entries appearing one after another.

The dictionary is enclosed by a dictionary start tag <dict> and a dictionary end tag </dict> .

Header section

The header section contains general information about the dictionary such as:

  • Type (for example, bilingual)
  • Source language (for example, English (U.S.))
  • Date when it was created
  • Codepage encoding

The dictionary header is marked with a header start tag <header> and a header end tag </header> .

The only information that you must provide in the header section is the source language of the dictionary. You can specify any of the languages for which you have a language support file installed (if you need to specify another language, see What you can do for other languages). OpenTM2 needs this information for reducing terms to their stem form when looking them up in the dictionary.

The header section can have the following tags:

Start tag End tag Description
<type> </type> Type of dictionary
<source> </source> Source language
<ltarget> </ltarget> Target language
<descript> </descript> Description of the dictionary, up to 255 characters long.
<createdate> </createdate> Date when dictionary was created
<CodePage> </CodePage> SGML-Format, can be UTF16, or ASCII=cp, or ANsi=cp

Example of a header section

<header>
<type>Bilingual</type>
<source>English(U.S.)</source>
<ltarget>German(national)</ltarget>
<descript>Basic Dictionary - English -> German</descript>
<CodePage>ASCII=850</CodePage>
<createdate>31/05/94</createdate>
</header>
Maptable section

The maptable section determines how a dictionary entry is structured. It serves as a model for the structure of an entry. The fields you defined in the maptable section are reflected in the dictionary entries.

The maptable contains the total of all allowed fields (up to a maximum of 38) in a dictionary entry. If a dictionary entry contains entry field tags not included in the maptable section, the information between the tags is not imported during dictionary import and only the entry fields listed in the maptable are taken into account. The information between a start tag and its end tag contains the name you want to give the entry field of the dictionary. You find these names displayed when you look up or edit a term in a dictionary.

For example, if you specify <hdterm> Source Term </hdterm>, the terms you look up in the dictionary are shown under Source Term. If you want to use another name, rename Source Term into any other name you would like to use instead.

The following is an example of a maptable section:

Example of a maptable section

 <maptable>
   <hdterm>Source term</hdterm>
    <hom>
     <epos>English category</epos>
     <sense>
      <edef>Formal English definition</edef>
      <target>
       <trans>NL term</trans>
      </target>
     </sense>
    </hom>
 </maptable>

The maptable begins with the start maptable tag <maptable> and ends with the end maptable tag </maptable>. The <hom>, <sense>, and <target> start tags with their respective end tags mark the homonym, sense, and target levels.

If you want to use the search criteria described in Searching for a dictionary entry, use the following start and end SGML tags:

Searching for … Level Tags
Headwords Entry <hdterm> and </hdterm>
Abbreviations Sense <eabbr> and </eabbr>
Synonyms Sense <esyn> and </esyn>
Related terms Sense <erel> and </erel>

If you use the tags listed above, OpenTM2 establishes a correct relation between the entry field name and the term you want to look up in the dictionary.

If you want OpenTM2 to add date information automatically to your dictionary entries, add the Creation Date and Update fields to the maptable.

If you want OpenTM2 to show style indicators in the dictionary lookup window, add the Style and the Trans Style fields to the maptable.

You can add any number of individually defined entry fields to any level. The entry field names are numbered and automatically mapped to an entry field name denoted by you in the maptable. Entry fields you add to the entry, homonym, or sense level start with the tag <euser id=xxx> and end with the tag </euser>, where xxx is the running number. Entry fields you add to the target level start with <tuser id=xxx> and end with </tuser>.

You can control the display panel (the panel on which a field is displayed in the “Lookup Entry” window) using the displevel= attribute. Use displevel=1 for fields to be displayed in panel 1, displevel=2 for fields to be displayed on panel 1 and 2 and displevel=3 for fields to be displayed on panel 1, panel 2, and panel 3. To omit fields from the display in the “Lookup Entry” window use displevel=0.

The size of a dictionary field in the “Edit Entry in Dictionary” window is controlled using the entrytype attribute. Specify entrytype=1 for single line fields and entrytype=2 for multi-line fields.

In order to display the contents of a dictionary field as additional dictionary data in the dictionary proposal area of the TranslationEnvironment specify the autlookup attribute for the field.

Example of date-information fields and user-defined fields

<maptable>
 <hdterm>…</hdterm>
 .
 .
 <ecrdate>Creation date</ecrdate> 
 .
 .
 <hom>
 .
 .
 <sense>
 .
 .
 <euser id=1 displevel=2 entrytype=1 autlookup>Entry code</euser> 
 <elupdate displevel=3 entrytype=1>Last update</elupdate> 
 .
 .
 <target>
 <trans>…</trans>
 <tcrdate displevel=3 entrytype=1>Translation creation date</tcrdate> 
 <tlupdate displevel=3 entrytype=1>Translation update</tlupdate> 
 <tuser id=2 displevel=3 entrytype=2>Related definition</tuser> 
 </target>
 </sense>
 </hom>
</maptable>
Entry section

The entry section lists the actual entries in the dictionary one after the other. Each entry starts with an <entry> tag and ends with an </entry> tag. Each entry contains the same entry field tags as used in the maptable section. Whereas the maptable contains the general description of the structure of an entry, the entry section contains real data.

The levels below the entry level can be repeated as often as necessary, for example, to contain multiple senses or translations.

For an example of an SGML-based dictionary see Sample of an SGML-based dictionary.

List of dictionary-entry fields and their SGML tags

The following table shows a list of all dictionary-entry field tags as they are predefined in the -Master- model dictionary.

Level Entry field name Start tag End tag
Entry Headword <hdterm> </hdterm>
Entry Reliability Code <erlcode> </erlcode>
Entry Author <eauthor> </eauthor>
Entry Creation Date <ecrdate> </ecrdate>
Entry Status Code <estatcode> </estatcode>
Homonym Part of Speech <epos> </epos>
Homonym Morphology <emorph> </emorph>
Homonym Hyphenation <ehyph> </ehyph>
Sense Source of Headword <esrc> </esrc>
Sense Abbrev./Fullform <eabbr> </eabbr>
Sense Author of Update <eauthupdate> </eauthupdate>
Sense Last Update <elupdate> </elupdate>
Sense Definition <edef> </edef>
Sense Source of Definition <esdef> </esdef>
Sense Synonym <esyn> </esyn>
Sense Other Related Terms <erel> </erel>
Sense Context <econtext> </econtext>
Sense Source of Context <escontext> </escontext>
Sense Comments <comment> </comment>
Sense Note on Usage <eusage> </eusage>
Sense Idiom <eidiom> </eidiom>
Sense Style <estyle> </estyle>
Target Language <tlanguage> </tlanguage>
Target Translation <trans> </trans>
Target Company/Subject Code <tsubjcode> </tsubjcode>
Target Source of Translation <tsrc> </tsrc>
Target Abbrev./Fullform <tabbr> </tabbr>
Target Reliability Code <trlcode> </trlcode>
Target Author <tauthor> </tauthor>
Target Author of Update <tauthupdate> </tauthupdate>
Target Creation Date <tcrdate> </tcrdate>
Target Last Update <tlupdate> </tlupdate>
Target Status Code <tstatcode> </tstatcode>
Target Part of Speech <tpos> </tpos>
Target Morphology <tmorph> </tmorph>
Target Hyphenation <thyph> </thyph>
Target Definition <tdef> </tdef>
Target Source of Definition <tsdef> </tsdef>
Target Synonym <tsyn> </tsyn>
Target Other Related Terms <trel> </trel>
Target Context <tcontext> </tcontext>
Target Source of Context <tscontext> </tscontext>
Target Comments <tcomment> </tcomment>
Target Note on Usage <tusage> </tusage>
Target Idiom <tidiom> </tidiom>
Target Trans Style <tstyle> </tstyle>

Sample of an SGML-based dictionary

The following is an example of an SGML-based dictionary containing a header section, a maptable, and two entries. The text to the right of the vertical line is explanatory information or comments to the tags. All explanatory information must be omitted when you actually create an SGML-based dictionary.

<dict>                                             start of dictionary
<header>                                           start of header section
  <source>English (U.S.)</source>                  source language (required)
  <descript>Basic Dictionary - English -> German</descript>
  </header>                                        end of header section
 <maptable>                                        start of maptable section
  <hdterm>Source term</hdterm>
  <eauthor>Created by</eauthor>
  <ecrdate>Term Creation Date</ecrdate>
  <hom>
   <epos>Category</epos>
   <sense>
    <edef>Definition</edef>
    <euser id=210>Private glossary</euser>         user-defined entry field
                                                   added to sense level
    <target>
     <tsubjcode>Subject code</tsubjcode>
     <trans>Translation</trans>
     <tuser id=1>Project code</tuser>              user-defined entry field
                                                   added to target level
    </target>
   </sense>
  </hom>
 </maptable>                                       end of maptable section 
 <entry>                                           start of first entry
  <hdterm>file</hdterm>                            headword: file
  <eauthor>Fred Miller</eauthor>                   author: Fred Miller
  <ecrdate>940401</ecrdate>                        creation date: 4/01/94
  <hom>                                            start of homonym level
   <epos>n</epos>                                  part of speech: noun
   <sense>                                         start of sense level
    <target>                                       start of target level
     <tsubjcode>EDV</tsubjcode>                    subject code
     <trans>Datei</trans>                          translation
    </target>                                      end of target level
   </sense>                                        end of sense level
  </hom>                                           end of homonym level
 </entry>                                          end of first entry
 <entry>                                           start of second entry
  <hdterm>abend</hdterm>                           headword: abend
  <eauthor>Peter G.</eauthor>                      author: Peter G.
  <ecrdate>940501</ecrdate> c                      reation date: 5/01/94
  <hom>                                            start of homonym level
   <epos>v</epos>                                  part of speech: verb
   <sense>                                         start of sense level
    <target>                                       start of target level
     <tsubjcode>EDV</tsubjcode>                    subject code
     <trans>abnormal beenden</trans>               translation
     <tuser id=4>AS400</tuser>                     user-defined entry field
                                                   not in maptable, field
                                                   is ignored when this
                                                   dictionary is imported
    </target>                                      end of target level
   </sense>                                        end of sense level
  </hom>                                           end of homonym level
 <hom>                                             start of homonym level
  <epos>n</epos>                                   part speech: noun
  <sense>                                          start of sense level
   <target>                                        start of target level
    <tsubjcode>EDV</tsubjcode>                     subject code
    <trans>abnormale Beendigung</trans>            translation
   </target>                                       end of target level
  </sense>                                         end of sense level
  </hom>                                           end of homonym level
 </entry>                                          end of second entry
</dict>                                            end of dictionary

Creating a dictionary

OpenTM2 offers you several ways of setting up a new dictionary.

  • If you do not have any existing terminology in machine-readable form, you must create a completely new dictionary. You do this by determining the dictionary properties. In particular, you must define a dictionary structure. You can use a default structure offered by OpenTM2, or you can use the structure of an existing dictionary in OpenTM2 and change it. A newly created dictionary is empty at first but you can add entries from a new terms list built during document analysis or at any stage during the translation process. In this way you can create dictionaries that contain specific terms related to your translation projects.
  • During analysis, OpenTM2 can generate a found terms list that contains all terms of the document that exist in the referenced dictionaries. OpenTM2 can also copy the entry data of these terms into a separate dictionary.
  • If you have a terminology file in a format of your own, you must generate an external SGML-based dictionary and you must import it into OpenTM2 . In this case, a new dictionary is created with your terminology and the entry structure as defined in the SGML file is taken.

If you create a new dictionary via the “New Dictionary” window in OpenTM2 and you do not use the modeling option, the following entry fields are offered as default fields:

Entry field Level
Headword *) Entry
Part of Speech Homonym
Abbrev./Fullform *) Sense
Definition Sense
Synonym *) Sense
Other Related Terms *) Sense
Context Sense
Translation Target
Company/Subject Code Target

The entry fields marked with *) can be used as predefined search criteria in the “Look up a Term” window (see Searching for a dictionary entry).

If you are working with a more comprehensive structure and require more entry fields, select -Master- in the “Use Existing Dictionary as Model” window, which offers an extensive dictionary structure. You can rename or delete any fields from this set of entry fields and you can also add new user-defined fields to it. OpenTM2 adds and updates time stamp information automatically, provided the following date fields are selected in the “New dictionary” window from the -Master- model dictionary.

Entry field Level Contents
Creation Date entry The date when a headword was added to a dictionary.
Last Update sense The date when information at the sense level of an entry was added or modified.
Creation Date target The date when a translation for a headword was added.
Last Update target The date when a translation entry field was last updated.
Prerequisites

None.

Calling sequence

Select:

  • The “Dictionary List” window
  • New… from the File menu

The “New Dictionary” window is displayed.
Eqfb7s10a.gif

Figure 101. New Dictionary window

Options and parameters
  • Name
Type a name of your choice for the new dictionary. This name can be up to eight alphanumeric characters long.
  • Description
Type a description for the new dictionary. The description can be up to 255 alphanumeric characters long.
  • Location of dictionary
Specify where to place the new dictionary. It can be on a local disk drive (only you can use it) or on a shared disk drive (several translators can use it simultaneously). See Sharing dictionaries to learn about sharing dictionaries.Select the drive on which you want the new dictionary to reside. A dictionary grows with time, so select a drive with enough space.
  • Source Language
Select a source language from the list of installed languages displayed in the list box.
  • Use existing dictionary as model
If you do not want to determine the dictionary entry structure yourself, you can use the structure of an existing dictionary as a model by clicking Yes…. This takes you to the “Use Existing Dictionary as Model” window where you can select a dictionary as model. Click Select or Cancel to return to the “New Dictionary” window. For more information on this option see Using an existing dictionary as model.
Change entry fields

If you want to change the dictionary entry structure (add, delete, or rename entry fields), click Yes…, which takes you to the “Change Entry Fields” window where you can define your changes. ClickSelect or Cancel to return to the “New Dictionary” window. For more information on this option see Changing dictionary entry fields.

To avoid unauthorized modification of a dictionary, you can protect it by clicking Protect…, which takes you to the “Protect Dictionary” window where you can type a password of your own. ClickProtect to return to the “New Dictionary” window. From now on, the dictionary can only be modified when the correct password is supplied. For more information on how to protect and unprotect dictionaries see Protecting a dictionary.

Click Create to create the new dictionary.

Results

The dictionary is created but still empty. When the dictionary has been created, its entry structure is fixed and can no longer be changed. You can now start to fill it by importing an SGML-based file, by entering terms from a new terms list, or by editing dictionary entries.

Using an existing dictionary as model

All dictionaries have a dictionary entry structure. In OpenTM2 you can use the given default structure, use an existing dictionary structure with or without changes, or define a new structure based on all the available entry fields.

Prerequisites

Decide on which dictionary entry fields your dictionary is to contain.

Calling sequence

Select:

  1. The “Dictionary List” window.
  2. New from the File menu. The “New Dictionary” window is displayed.
  3. Yes… next to the Use existing dictionary as model option.

The “Use Existing Dictionary as Model” window is displayed.
Eqfb7s10b.gif

Figure 102. Use Existing Dictionary as Model window

Options and parameters

The list of existing dictionaries is displayed in the list box. Select a dictionary with the structure you want to use as a model from this list or select -Master-, which contains all the entry fields predefined by OpenTM2.

Click Select to return to the “New Dictionary” window where you can view and change the selected entry structure by selecting the Change entry fields option.

Results

You have determined which entry structure to use as a base for the new dictionary.

Changing dictionary entry fields

Select this function to make modifications to a dictionary entry structure. You can delete entry fields, rename entry fields, or add new user-defined entry fields. You can determine the size of the entry field and what entry field data you want to have displayed on which panel of the “Lookup Entry” window.

Prerequisites

Decide on which dictionary entry fields your dictionary is to contain.

Calling sequence

Select:

  1. The “Dictionary List” window.
  2. New… from the File menu. The “New Dictionary” window is displayed.
  3. Yes… next to the Change entry fields option.

The “Change Entry Fields” window is displayed.
Eqfb7s10c.gif

Figure 103. Change Entry Fields window

Options and parameters
  • Entry fields
This list box contains all the entry fields defined for this dictionary. Select one entry field at a time and define your settings for this field.
  • Display
If you want this entry field to be displayed in one of the panels of the “Lookup Entry” window, decide on which one. This means choose between Panel 1 (for the most relevant data), Panel 2, andPanel 3.
Select Omit if you want the entry field and its data not to be displayed on any of the lookup panels. The entry field is not deleted from the entry structure. Select Aut. Lookup to display the complete entry field information in the window showing the found dictionary proposals during translation.
  • Level
To specify the level you want the entry field to belong to, select a corresponding entry field so that the required level is active. It can be Entry, Homonym, Sense, or Target.
  • Size
Select one of the two choices:
  • Small
Is adequate for an entry field of about a line in length (the maximum is 255 characters).
  • Large
Is needed for an entry field consisting of several lines of data.Select this size only if absolutely necessary because the use of too many large fields decreases the performance of OpenTM2.

For each selected entry field you can clicke of the following:

  • Change Name…
To rename the entry field. See Renaming a dictionary entry field for details.
  • Add Field…
To add a new user-defined entry field to the list of entry fields. For more detail see Adding a user-defined entry field.
  • Delete field
To remove the entry field from the entry structure.

When all of the entry field settings are complete, click Change. This takes you back to the “New Dictionary” window.

Results

The entry structure of the selected dictionary is changed according to your specifications, this means the dictionary can have more or fewer entry fields, changed entry field names and sizes, and changed lookup display options.

Renaming a dictionary entry field

In OpenTM2, all entry fields are automatically assigned a name. You can change the field name to any other name. The changed names are used in all windows where dictionary entry data is displayed. For example, you may want to change Headword to Term, or Part of speech to Category. You can also change the field names to another language of your preference.

You can change the entry field names of an existing dictionary when you create a new dictionary.

Prerequisites

Decide which dictionary entry field names you want to use in your dictionary.

Calling sequence

When creating a new dictionary, select:

  1. The “Dictionary List” window.
  2. New… from the File menu. The “New Dictionary” window is displayed.
  3. Yes… next to the Change entry fields option.
  4. The entry field you want to rename in the “Change Entry Fields” window.

When changing the properties of an existing dictionary, select:

  1. The “Dictionary List” window
  2. The dictionary to which you want to make changes
  3. Properties… from the File menu
  4. The entry field you want to rename in the “Dictionary Properties” window

The “Change Entry Field Name” window is displayed.

Options and parameters

Type the new field name in the Displayed as field. Click Change to rename the selected field.

Results

The selected dictionary entry field is renamed. You are returned to the “Change Entry Fields” window when you create a new dictionary or to the “Dictionary Properties” window when you change the properties of an existing dictionary.

Adding a user-defined entry field

The predefined entry fields in OpenTM2 dictionaries are only examples of possible fields you can use when you create a new dictionary and determine its structure.

You can add your own user-defined fields to any of the four levels that make up the dictionary structure.

You can only add user-defined fields when you create a new dictionary. When the dictionary already exists, you cannot change its structure.

Prerequisites

Decide which dictionary entry fields you want to add to your dictionary structure.

Calling sequence

The “Dictionary List” window

  1. New… from the File menu
  2. Yes… next to the Change entry fields option in the “New Dictionary” window
  3. An entry field belonging to the level to which you want to add a field

The “Add Entry Field” window is displayed.

Options and parameters

Type a name for the entry field you want to add in the Displayed as field. Click Add to add the new field to your structure.

Results

The entry field is added to the dictionary structure at the same level as the entry field you have selected before clicking Add field…. You are returned to the “Change Entry Fields” window.

Defining a dictionary filter

A dictionary filter is a means by which data in a dictionary can be selected so that only entries that meet specified conditions are displayed or printed.

In OpenTM2 filters can be used in combination with printing (see [Working with dictionaries#Printing a dictionary|Printing a dictionary]]) or dictionary lookup (see Looking up a dictionary entry). You can use an existing filter, change an existing one, or create a new one.

In OpenTM2 a filter condition consists of:filterconditions

  • An entry field (such as Headword, Translation)
  • An operator (such as = or >)
  • An operand (such as a*)

For example, the condition Headword LIKE = ‘a*’ selects all (and only) the entries beginning with the letter a.

There are two types of operators:

  1. (=, <>, <, >, <=, >=, LIKE, BETWEEN and IN form expressions (for example, Headword = ‘Test’ ).
  2. AND, OR, (,) and NOT) join valid expressions to form a larger expression (for example, Headword = ‘Test’ AND Translation = ‘Test’).

The operators have the following meanings:

  • =
The field must contain exactly the value specified.
  • <>
The field must not contain the value specified.
  • <
The field can contain only values that are less than the value specified, for example, preceding the specified value in alphabetical sequence.
  • >
The field can contain only values that are greater than the value specified, for example, following the specified value in alphabetical sequence.
  • <=
The field can contain only values that are less than or equal to the value specified.
  • >=
The field can contain only values that are greater than or equal to the value specified.
  • LIKE
The field can contain values that are similar to the value specified, for example, they start with the specified value.
  • BETWEEN
The field can contain values that are in a range between one value and another.
  • IN
The field can contain values that match up to six different values.
  • AND
This operator joins two expressions so that both expressions must match in order to let the entry pass the filter.
  • OR
This operator joins two expressions so that one or both expressions must match in order to let the entry pass the filter.
  • NOT
This operator specifies that the filter let pass only those entries that do not match the specified value.
  • ( and )
These operators are used to group expressions. Expressions in parentheses are processed before expressions without parentheses.

Note: All filters depend on the dictionary entry structure. This means that a filter created for one dictionary possibly refers to entry fields that are not contained in another dictionary. In such cases, it is recommended to create a new filter for each dictionary.

Prerequisites

Either the “Look up a Term” window or the “Print Dictionary” window is active.

Calling sequence
  1. Select the Use filter option.
  2. Click Edit….

The “Edit Dictionary Filter” window is displayed.
Eqfb7s10d.gif

Figure 104. Edit Dictionary Filter window

Options and parameters

The dictionary-filter parameters are as follows:

  • Name
Lists the name of all available filters. If you specified or selected an existing filter in the Print Dictionary or “Look up a Term” window, the name of this filter is displayed first in the list. If you specified a new filter in either of these windows, this field is empty and the new name is only displayed in the Save to box.If you want to change an existing filter, select this filter. If you want to create a new filter, skip this box.
  • Description

Displays the description of a filter if one was entered. For a new filter, type a descriptive text.

  • Available fields
Lists the name of all entry fields that a dictionary entry consists of.If you want all entry fields to appear in the printout or in the “Lookup Entry” window (depending on which window you came from) but do not specify any conditions for the entry fields, you can skip this box. If you want specific entry fields to appear in the printout or in the “Lookup Entry” window but do not want to specify any conditions for them, double-click these entry fields. They will appear in the SELECT box. If you also want to specify conditions for one or more entry fields using one of the operators =, <>, <, >, <=, >=, LIKE, BETWEEN, and IN, double-click the entry field and then double-click the operator. The “Set Dictionary Condition” window is displayed in which you can specify one or more values, depending on the operator that you selected. The condition that you specify is displayed in the WHERE box after you leave the “Set Dictionary Condition” window.
Note: The operators AND, OR, NOT, (, and ) can only be selected for the WHERE box.Lists the entry fields defined for the selected dictionary.
  • Operators
Lists the available operators that can be used with an entry field to specify a filter condition.
  • Condition
Displays the defined filter condition:
  • SELECT
Lists the entry fields that you selected in the Available fields box. Only those listed here will appear in the printout or in the “Lookup Entry” window, depending on which window you came from.To add more entry fields, double-click them in the Available fields box. To include all fields, leave this box blank or type an asterisk (*).
  • WHERE
Contains the condition that you specified and that a dictionary entry has to match in order to pass the filter. A condition expression consists of an entry field, an operator, and a value.To add an expression, double-click an entry field in the Available fields box and then double-click one of the operators =, <>, <, >, <=, >=, LIKE, BETWEEN, and IN. The “Set Dictionary Condition” window is displayed in which you can specify one or more values, depending on the operator that you select. The expression that you specify is displayed in the WHERE box after leaving the “Set Dictionary Condition” window. To join expressions, move the cursor between the expressions to be joined and then double-click the operator AND, OR, or NOT. For example, Headword = ‘Test’ AND Translation = ‘Test’. To group expressions, move the cursor to the beginning or end of an expression and then double-click the operator ( or ).
  • Save to
Displays the filter name that you specified or selected in the Print Dictionary or “Look up a Term” window or selected from the Name list. You can type a new name or select the name of an existing filter. In the latter case, the existing filter is overwritten.

Select Save to create the new or changed filter. Select Delete to delete the displayed filter.

For example, if you want to create a filter that selects only those entries in the dictionary that begin with the letter a, define the filter as follows:

  1. Click the field name Headword in the Available fields list box to mark it.
  2. Double-click the LIKE operator in the Operators list box. The “Set Dictionary Condition” window appears.
  3. Type a* or A* at the cursor position and click Set. The input can be in uppercase, lowercase, or mixed-case characters.
  4. The condition is displayed in the WHERE field.
  5. Enter a name for the filter (for example,ONLYA) in the Save to combination box.
  6. Click Save to create the filter.
Results

The changed or new filter is saved and can be used for dictionary lookup or printing. You are returned to the previous window.

Renaming a dictionary

OpenTM2 enables you to give a dictionary a new name.

Prerequisites

The dictionary must exist.

Calling sequence

Select:

  1. The dictionary from the “Dictionary List” window
  2. Rename from the File menu
Options and parameters
  • Rename to
Type a new name for the dictionary.
  • Adjust all references automatically
If you select this option, all references to the renamed dictionary are also changed.
Results

If you select Rename, the dictionary and, optionally, any references to it are renamed.

Deleting a dictionary

Deleting a dictionary can be useful when you have exported it or archived it outside of OpenTM2 and no longer need it, and you require free space on your disk. For deleting a shared dictionary, seeDeleting a shared dictionary.

Prerequisites

Make sure that you have a backup copy of the dictionary before deleting it if it contains important data.

Calling sequence

Select:

  1. “Dictionary List” window
  2. The dictionary you want to delete
  3. Delete from the File menu
Options and parameters

A confirmation message appears before the dictionary is deleted.

If you select No, the delete function is canceled.

If you select Yes, the dictionary is deleted.

Results

If you select Yes, the dictionary is deleted. References to this dictionary may still exist in certain folders. Update the folder properties so that the deleted dictionary is not referenced anymore.

Editing a dictionary entry

Individual dictionary entries can be changed, for example, a new translation can be added or an existing obsolete translation deleted.

You can edit a dictionary entry at any time before, after, or during translation.

Prerequisites

The dictionary must exist.

Calling sequence

There are several ways to get to the “Edit Entry in Dictionary” window:

  • To add, change, or delete a dictionary entry outside the Translation Environment, select:
  1. The “Dictionary List” window
  2. The dictionary you want to open
  3. Open from the File menu
  4. The term to enter in the “Look up a Term” window
  5. Headword search type and click Edit…
  • To add, change, or delete a dictionary entry in the Translation Environment, select:
  1. The document for translation in the “Document List” window
  2. Open from the File menu
  3. The term in the document to add or modify by marking it
  4. Edit a term… in the Translate menu
  • Or select:
  1. The term in the “Dictionary”window and double-click it
  2. Edit in the “Lookup Entry” window

In all cases, the “Edit Entry in Dictionary” window is displayed.
Eqfb7s10e.gif

Figure 105. Edit Entry in Dictionary window

Options and parameters

The entry displayed in the “Edit Entry in Dictionary” window is split up into templates. A template is the complete dictionary entry information related to one translation. This window shows one template at a time.

If the term does not exist, only one empty template is displayed.If, on the other hand, the term exists, the first template (translation) is displayed.

  • Template 1 of 1
The term in the sample window has one translation. This box displays all data related to this translation, this means, each entry field with its name and its contents.
  • Template
The following options let you scroll through all templates of an entry or change complete templates.
Select:
  • Next
To select the following template.
  • Previous
To select the previous template.
  • Add
To add an empty template for a new translation variant.
  • Copy
To copy the contents of the currently displayed template into a new one where you can type over the contents to add the new translation. You would use Copy instead of Add in cases where only minor changes need to be made to a translation variant.
  • Delete
To delete the currently displayed template.
  • Clipboard
By selecting options in this box, you can move data from the current template to the clipboard and vice versa, for example, you can insert context information from the document in the Translation Environment.
  • Copy
To copy a marked text to the clipboard.
  • Paste
To copy a previously saved text from the clipboard to the current cursor position.

To delete the entire entry from the dictionary, click Delete at the bottom of the window.

Click Save to save your changes to the dictionary displayed in the Save to dictionary list box. In the Translation Environment, you can choose between any of the dictionaries opened for translation (defined as a folder property). Outside the Translation Environment, you can only save the data to the dictionary you explicitly selected.

Results

A new term is added to the dictionary, or an existing term is changed or deleted.

Exporting a dictionary

There are two ways to export dictionary data, within a folder in the internal OpenTM2 format or as an external dictionary in SGML format.

Export a dictionary if you want to pass the dictionary on to other OpenTM2 users or to create a backup copy of a dictionary. Protected dictionaries must be exported in a folder. For more information on folder export, see Exporting a folder.

Exporting a dictionary into an SGML-based file is required if you want to use the dictionary data in environments other than OpenTM2.

Exporting a dictionary can also be part of the conversion of a dictionary into Unicode. To convert a dictionary into Unicode, you must first export it from OpenTM2 and then import it again. In both cases, you select SGML Unicode as export or import format.

Prerequisites

Sufficient disk space for the exported dictionary is available.

Calling sequence

Select:

  1. The “Dictionary List” window
  2. The dictionary you want to export
  3. Export… from the File menu

The “Export dictionary” window is displayed.
Eqfb7s10f.gif

Figure 106. Export Dictionary window

Options and parameters
  • Save in
Select the drive and directory to which the dictionary is to be exported.
  • File name
Contains the name of the dictionary to be exported. You can overwrite it with a new name.
  • Save as type
Select the format in which the dictionary is to be stored. Select SGML Unicode if the export is part of your conversion of the dictionary into Unicode.

Click Save to begin exporting the dictionary. If you specified a new directory name, you are prompted to confirm whether you want to create this new directory.

Results

An SGML-based dictionary file is created at the specified location and can be given to other users or programs for further usage.

Importing a dictionary

You can import a dictionary as an external dictionary (SGML-based) or within a folder in the OpenTM2 format.

If you want to work with terminology created outside OpenTM2, create an SGML-based file (for more details, see Creating an SGML-based dictionary) and import this file into OpenTM2. You can either import the file into a new dictionary or merge the data into an existing dictionary.

Dictionaries imported in a folder are in OpenTM2 format. If the dictionary does not exist, a new dictionary is created; if it does exist, the folder dictionary is merged into the existing one. For more information on folder import, see Importing a folder.

When merging two dictionaries, the dictionary structure of the destination dictionary is maintained. Data in entry fields that exist only in the source dictionary and not in the destination dictionary will not be regarded and data may be lost. Entry fields not contained in the external dictionary will be empty in the dictionary after importing.

If you select to import an external dictionary under a new dictionary name, the “New Dictionary” window is displayed where all the properties are shown as they are coded in the SGML-based file. You can change certain properties if you want to, although this is not always advisable as the changed properties may be different from what is specified in the SGML file.

Importing a dictionary can also be part of the conversion of a dictionary into Unicode. To convert a dictionary into Unicode, you must first export it from OpenTM2 and then import it again. In both cases, you select SGML Unicode as export or import format.

Prerequisites

The SGML-based file for import must have been created according to the description in Creating an SGML-based dictionary.

Calling sequence

Select:

  1. The “Dictionary List” window
  2. A dictionary if you want to merge dictionaries
  3. Import… from the File menu

The “Import Dictionary” window is displayed.
DicImport.gif

Figure 107. Import Dictionary window

Options and parameters
  • Look in
Select the directory where the dictionary to be imported resides.
  • File name
Enter the name of the external dictionary to be imported.
  • Format
Select the format of the dictionary to be imported.
  • To dictionary
Contains the name of the selected dictionary to be imported. You can overwrite this name to create a new dictionary or select a name from the list box to merge your file into an existing dictionary.

Click Import to begin the import function.

If OpenTM2 detects an incorrect SGML tag in the SGML-based file, a message is displayed, asking you if you want to skip the entry containing the error or to cancel the import process.

If you selected to import an external dictionary under a new dictionary name, the “New Dictionary” window is displayed where all the properties are shown as they are coded in the SGML-based file. For more information, see Creating a dictionary.

If you selected to merge the external dictionary into an existing dictionary in OpenTM2, remember that the dictionary structures may differ and that there may be identical terms. In case of conflicts you are prompted to specify additional options for merging dictionaries in the “Merge Dictionary Entries” window. For more information, see [Working with dictionaries#Merging dictionaries|Merging dictionaries]].

Results

The external dictionary data is imported either under a new name or merged with an existing dictionary. You can begin to use it in OpenTM2. The external dictionary is unchanged.

Looking up a dictionary entry

There are several ways to look up dictionary entries in OpenTM2:

  • During translation, OpenTM2 automatically displays the translation of all terms in the currently active segment for which entries are found in the dictionaries selected for search in the folder. The dictionaries are searched in the order defined in the folder properties (see Changing the properties of a folder), and the first entry found is displayed in the dictionary window.
  • To view the complete dictionary entry or to check if there are any further entries in other dictionaries, you can double-click the term, and the “Lookup Entry”window for this term is displayed, which allows you to select the dictionary (if the entry occurs in more than one of the folder dictionaries) and the lookup panel you want to see.
  • You can also mark a term or a multiword term in the “Translation”window and select Look up a term… from the Translate menu. If the term is not found in the dictionaries, the “Look up a Term” window is displayed. If the term is found in the dictionaries, the “Lookup Entry”window is displayed containing the data for this term.

Outside the Translation Environment you can look up entries only in one dictionary at a time.

How to search for terms in a dictionary is described in Searching for a dictionary entry. How to edit an existing entry in a dictionary after you have retrieved it is described in Editing a dictionary entry.

Prerequisites
  • The dictionary must exist.
  • The term you want to look up must exist in the dictionary.
Calling sequence

Outside the Translation Environment, follow this procedure to look up a dictionary entry:

  1. Select the “Dictionary List” window.
  2. Double-click the dictionary you want to open. The “Look up a Term”window is displayed, where you can type the term, select your search type, and define a filter if you want to restrict your search. For more detail on defining a filter, see Defining a dictionary filter.
  3. Type the term you want to look up in the Term field.
  4. Select the Headword search option.
  5. If the term exists in the dictionary, click Look up in the “Look up a Term”window. Otherwise OpenTM2 offers you to add the term to the dictionary (see also Editing a dictionary entry).

During translation in the Translation Environment, there are several ways to look up a dictionary entry:

  • Using a displayed term in the “Dictionary” window, double-click the term you want to look up. The “Lookup Entry”window is displayed (see Figure 108).
  • Using a term in the “Translation” window:
  1. Mark the term, possibly a multiword term.
  2. Select Look up a a term… from the Translate menu.

If the specified term does not exist in the selected dictionary, the “Look up a Term” window is displayed (see Figure 111) showing existing terms preceding and following the marked term in alphabetical sequence. For more information on searching, see Searching for a dictionary entry.

In all cases, if the specified term exists in the dictionary, the “Lookup Entry” window is displayed.
Eqfb7s10h.gif

Figure 108. Lookup Entry window

Options and parameters
  • Dictionary
This field contains the name of the first dictionary where the term and its entry data are found. If the lookup function was called from the Translation Environment and the folder properties contain more than one dictionary, you can switch between the different dictionaries to see whether the same term is in more than one dictionary.
  • Display
In this field, you can switch between the lookup panels 1, 2, and 3 to display entry data of this term as defined in the dictionary structure.

The large center box contains entries for the found term in the displayed dictionary according to the panel selection.

Click Print to print the data of the term on your workstation printer.

Click Edit… if you want to edit the entry data of the found term in the “Edit Entry in Dictionary” window. For more information on editing, see Editing a dictionary entry.

Click Copy to copy a marked text to the clipboard.

Click Cancel to leave the window.

Results

The entries for the selected term are displayed. The entries are changed, printed, or copied to the clipboard depending on the options you selected in this window.

Merging dictionaries

Merging two dictionaries is only supported when you import an external dictionary into an existing one in OpenTM2. When you do this, remember that the dictionary structure of the destination dictionary has precedence. You are warned if the dictionary structures differ, and OpenTM2 allows you to create a new dictionary instead, to prevent any loss of data.

If, during dictionary merge, the same term exists in both dictionaries, the “Merge Dictionary Entries” window is displayed.
Eqfb7s10i.gif

Figure 109. Merge Dictionary Entries window

Options and parameters
  • Term
Displays the term that exists in both dictionaries.
  • Merge from SGML dictionary
Contains the entries in the external dictionary for this term.
  • Merge into target dictionary
Contains the entries in the existing dictionary for this term.
  • Options
Depending on how you want to process the entries for the current term (displayed in the two boxes), select one of the following options or click Cancel to stop the merging:
  • Replace target entry with source entry
This option only takes the source dictionary entry into consideration. The destination dictionary entry is overwritten.
  • Ignore source entry
This option only takes the destination dictionary entry into consideration. The source dictionary entry is discarded.
  • Combine entries
This option takes both the source dictionary and the destination dictionary entries into consideration, combining them to form one entry. Provided that the dictionary structures do not differ, no data is discarded or overwritten.
  • Use the selected option for all entries
Select this option, if you do not want the “Merge Dictionary Entries” window to appear every time the same term is found in both dictionaries and you are sure that your selected merge option applies for all entries.

Click Merge to begin or to continue the merging.

Click Cancel to leave the merging and importing program.

Results

The external dictionary data is merged with the existing dictionary according to the specified options. The external dictionary is unchanged.

Opening a dictionary

To look at dictionary data, you must open it. In a dictionary, you can search for specified terms, you can look up the data of an existing term, you can change the entry data of an existing term, and you can add entries for new terms.

Opening a dictionary can be done in several ways outside the Translation Environment and during translation in the Translation Environment.

Opening a dictionary is automatically done, when you use one of the following functions:

Organizing a dictionary

Organizing makes the dictionary compact and increases performance. Dictionaries to which you frequently make changes should be organized periodically.

If an error occurs during dictionary processing, you are prompted to organize the dictionary because organizing often rectifies the error.

Prerequisites

The dictionary must exist.

Calling sequence

Select:

  1. The “Dictionary List” window
  2. The dictionary you want to organize
  3. Organize from the File menu

The organize procedure starts immediately.

Options and parameters

None.

Results

The dictionary is organized, informing you how many terms have been organized, and you can continue using it.

Printing a dictionary

You can choose to print a complete dictionary or parts of it.

If you only want to print part of a dictionary, for example all entries with a headword starting with the letter a, or only some of the entry fields, or only the headwords and the translations, you can define a filter for the print function.

You must define the layout of your print output in format files that you edit with a text editor. In the print format file you define the entry fields to be printed and how they are arranged in the printout.

You can send your printout to an attached workstation printer or have the printout data sent to a file.

Before printing a dictionary or part of a dictionary, the output file structure must be determined. If you decide not to use one of the format files provided by OpenTM2, you must create this file in the subdirectory \eqf\prtform. For more information on how to use the sample format print files see Defining the printout format. For a detailed description of the structure and syntax of a print format file seeFormat files for printing a dictionary#Defining your own format file.

Prerequisites
  • The dictionary must exist.
  • The format file for the specific printout layout must exist.
Calling sequence

Select:

  1. The “Dictionary List” window
  2. The dictionary you want to print
  3. Print… from the File menu

The “Print Dictionary” window is displayed.
Eqfb7s10j.gif

Figure 110. Print Dictionary window

Options and parameters
  • Name
The selected dictionary name.
  • Description
The dictionary description text.
  • Output to
In this box, select where you want to send your printout to:
  • Printer
If you want the printout on your attached workstation printer.
  • File
If you want the printout on file. Enter the complete file name specification—consisting of drive, path, file name—in the Name field yourself or click Select…, which takes you to the “Select File” window assisting you in selecting the drive, directory, and file name (see #Specifying an output file).
  • Format
Specify the print format file to be used:
  • Name
Select a format file from the list of available files. If you created a new format file, it should appear in this list.
  • Description
Describes the selected format file.
  • Filter
Specify whether to use a filter. You can use an existing filter or change it or create a new filter.
  • Use filter
To use a filter, select this option and specify which filter to use:
  • Name
Lists all available filters. To use or change an existing filter, select it. To define a new filter, type the name in the list box.
  • Description
Describes the selected filter.

Click Edit… to define the new filter or to change an existing one, which takes you to the “Edit Dictionary Filter” window. For more information on how to define filter conditions, see Defining a dictionary filter.

Click Print to start the printing function.

Results

If you selected the Printer option, the dictionary printout is sent to your attached printer. If you selected the File option, the dictionary printout is stored in the specified file.

Defining the printout format

OpenTM2 provides sample print-format files that you can use to print dictionary data or as a basis for defining your own print output format.

To become acquainted with format files, use the FORMAT1.FRM print format file for printing one of the sample dictionaries provided in a sample folder (for example SAMPLE2).

When you change a format file or create one of your own, make sure you follow the required syntax of the format file. All print-format files are located in the subdirectory \eqf\prtform.

The following sample files are provided by OpenTM2:

File name Description
format1.frm Prints each headword and its translation.
format2.frm Prints all templates for each entry without formatting.
format3.frm For this format file, it is recommended to select the File output option because it generates a BookMaster (R) source file (containing all templates for each entry). This file must be processed by BookMaster (R) outside OpenTM2 to obtain a formatted dictionary printout.
format4.frm Prints a dictionary extract consisting of cover page, body part, header section, and current page number for each page.

All the print-format files provided by OpenTM2 are described in detail in Sample format files. For a complete and detailed description of the structure and syntax of print-format files see []Format files for printing a dictionary#Defining your own format file|Defining your own format file].

Experienced users can use the print function also for generating new external dictionaries, which again can be imported and used in OpenTM2. For example, you can:

  • Generate a reverse dictionary from an existing one (this means, generate a German to English dictionary from an English to German dictionary).
  • Generate a new dictionary containing selected entries from another dictionary. This can be useful, for example, when you have a dictionary containing translations into several languages and want to extract the entry data related to translations into one of the languages.

Protecting a dictionary

To avoid uncontrolled modification, you can protect dictionaries, that is, everyone can browse these dictionaries, but only authorized persons responsible for updating dictionaries (for example, a terminologist) can make changes to them.

You protect them by assigning a password to them. You can protect dictionaries in the “New Dictionary” window when creating a new dictionary or in the “Dictionary Properties” window when viewing its properties by pressing the Protect… button.

If you are not authorized to edit a protected dictionary but want to make changes to existing entries or add new entries, you can do this by creating a new dictionary using the protected dictionary as a model. For more details see Creating a dictionary. You can then use the new dictionary as an addendum dictionary to the protected one. Redefine any dictionary search sequence so that this addendum dictionary precedes the protected dictionary.

You can send this addendum dictionary to a person who is authorized to edit protected dictionaries and can update these dictionaries on the basis of the modifications and additions made in your addendum dictionary.

When you start creating a new dictionary, the unprotected mode is the default setting. In this mode you can carry out any modifications to that dictionary.

Dictionary task Unprotected Protected
Export to SGML-based dictionary Yes No
Delete a dictionary Yes Yes
Export folder with dictionary Yes Yes
Look up a dictionary entry Yes Yes
Edit a dictionary entry Yes No
Organize a dictionary Yes Password

The following table shows you which tasks you can perform with unprotected and protected dictionaries:

The following table shows the merge options that are available:

Dictionary merge from To unprotected dictionary To protected dictionary
SGML-based dictionary Yes Password
Unprotected folder dictionary Yes No
Protected folder dictionary No No
Calling sequence

To protect an existing dictionary, select:

  1. The “Dictionary List” window
  2. The dictionary you want to protect
  3. Properties… from the File menu
  4. Protect in the “Dictionary Properties” window

To protect a new dictionary, select:

  1. The “Dictionary List” window
  2. New from the File menu
  3. Protect in the “New Dictionary” window

The “Protect Dictionary” window is displayed. Enter your new password twice and confirm by clicking Protect.

Results

The dictionary is protected, for example, only those that know the password have read-write access to the dictionary. Those who do not know the password have read-only access.

The protection status of a dictionary can be revoked if the password assigned to the respective dictionary is known.

Calling sequence

Select:

  • The “Dictionary List” window
  • The dictionary you want to unprotect
  • Properties… from the File menu
  • Click Unprotect…

The “Query Password for Dictionary” window is displayed.

This window is also displayed when you try to perform an action that makes changes to the dictionary.

In this window you can enter the dictionary password and confirm by pressing the OK button.

Results

The dictionary is unprotected and everyone can change it.

Searching for a dictionary entry

If you want to know whether a certain term is included in a dictionary, you can search for this term in several ways, this means with a:

  • Complete or incomplete term
  • Predefined search type
  • Dictionary filter defined by you
  • Combination of these

Searching for a term can be done outside the Translation Environment and during translation in the Translation Environment.

To search for a term, you specify the term and the search parameters in the “Look up a Term” window.

If more than one term matches with the specified search criteria, you can select the term you are currently interested in to display its data.

If the term is found in the dictionary, you can display and edit the complete entry in subsequent windows (Look up Entry and Edit Entry in Dictionary).

If the specified term is not found in the dictionary, you can add a new entry for this term. What you can do in the following windows is described in Looking up a dictionary entry, and Editing a dictionary entry.

Prerequisites

The dictionary must exist.

Calling sequence

To search for a term outside the Translation Environment, select::

  1. The “Dictionary List” window
  2. The dictionary you want to open
  3. Open from the File menu

Alternatively, double-click the dictionary in the “Dictionary List” window in the main window.

To search for a term in the Translation Environment, select:

  1. A term or a multiword term in the “Translation” window by marking it
  2. Look up a term… from the Translate menu.If the term exists in the dictionary, the “Look up Entry”window for this term is displayed. For more information, see Looking up a dictionary entry. If the term does not exist in the dictionary, OpenTM2 starts searching for the term as if you specified the search option.

The “Look up a Term” window is displayed.
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Figure 111. Look up a Term window

Options and parameters
  • Term
If you came from the “Dictionary List” window, type the term you are looking for. You can type a single term or a multiword term. You can use an asterisk (*) to get a list of all terms in the dictionary, or use the asterisk as part of a term to get a list of terms. For example, enter app* to get a list of all terms starting with the letters app. You can enter the term in uppercase, lowercase, or mixed-case characters.
If you came from the Translation Environment, the term that you highlighted or on which you positioned your cursor is displayed and a list of up to 30 terms preceding and following the term in alphabetical order.
  • Type of search
The synonym, related term, and abbreviation search types are greyed out if the corresponding entry field does not exist in the dictionary.
Select one of the following search types:
  • Neighborhood
To display the 30 terms preceding and the 30 terms following the specified term.
  • Compound word
To retrieve all compound words that start with the specified term. For example, if the term data is looked up, the possible compound words that would be retrieved are:
  • Data processing
  • Data processing network
  • Data processor
The displayed list is empty if no matches are found in the dictionary.
  • Synonym
To retrieve all terms where the specified term is in the synonym entry field of the respective term. For example, if you specified the term stream with the Synonym search option, you would getbrook and rivulet, if stream is contained in their dictionary entries. The displayed list is empty if no matches are found in the dictionary.
  • Related Term
To display all terms related to the selected term. For example, if you specified the term forest with the Related Term search option, you would get forestry commission and forester as related terms if forest was entered in the related term entry field of their dictionary entries. The displayed list is empty if no matches are found in the dictionary.
  • Abbreviation
To display all terms that have an abbreviation. For example, if you specified the term appl. with the Abbreviation search option, you would get application if appl. was entered in the abbreviation entry field of its dictionary entry. The displayed list is empty if no matches are found in the dictionary.
  • Headword
To search only for the specified term. This is the default search option.
  • Dictionaries
This box displays the name of the selected dictionary if you came from the “Dictionary List” window, or the name of one or more dictionaries used during the translation of the document if you came from the Translation Environment.
  • Filter
Specify whether to use a filter to restrict the number of terms to be found. You can use an existing filter, change it, or create a new filter.
  • Use filter
To use a filter, select this option and specify which filter to use:
  • Name
Lists all available filters. If you want to use or change an existing filter, select it. If you want to define a new filter, enter a name in the list box.
  • Description
The description of the selected filter.
Click Edit… to define the new filter or to change an existing one, which takes you to the “Edit Dictionary Filter” window. For more details on how to define filters, see Defining a dictionary filter.

Click Look up… to start the search.

Click Edit… to display the “Edit Entry in Dictionary” window in which you can edit the selected term, if it already exists in the dictionary, or define it to the dictionary as a new term.

Results

If you selected the Headword search type and an entry for the specified term is found in the dictionary, the “Lookup Entry” window is automatically displayed containing the data for this entry. For more information, see Looking up a dictionary entry.

If you selected the Headword search type and the term is not found in the dictionary and you clicked Look up…, a message appears asking if you want to add the term to the dictionary. If you add the term, you are automatically taken to the “Edit Entry in Dictionary” window. For more information, see Editing a dictionary entry.

If you selected Neighborhood search, and the term is not found in the dictionary, a list of up to 60 terms is displayed in alphabetical order where the specified term would appear in the middle. If more than one term satisfies the specified search criteria, a list of up to 60 terms is displayed from which you can select a term and use it for a Headword search request.

If the specified term exists in the selected dictionary and you selected Edit…, the “Edit Entry in Dictionary” windows is displayed. For more information, see Editing a dictionary entry.

Viewing the properties of a dictionary

The main properties of a dictionary are:

  • Name
The name of the dictionary. It cannot be changed for an existing dictionary.
  • Source language
The source of the dictionary, this means, the language of the terms (headwords). It cannot be changed for an existing dictionary.
  • Drive
The drive where the dictionary resides. It cannot be changed for an existing dictionary.
  • Description
The description of the dictionary. It can be up to 255 characters long.
  • Location
Can be local (only one translator at a time can use it) or shared (several translators can use it simultaneously).
  • Entry fields
Contains the entry fields that make up the dictionary structure. For an existing dictionary you can only change the name of a field and the lookup panel number.
  • Protected?
Specifies whether the dictionary is protected against unauthorized modifications.
Prerequisites

The dictionary must exist.

Calling sequence

Select:

  1. A dictionary from the “Dictionary List” window
  2. Properties Summary… from the File menu
Results

A document in HTML format is displayed containing a summary of the dictionary properties.
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Figure 112. Dictionary Properties document

If you want to view more properties or change the properties of a dictionary, refer to Changing the properties of a dictionary.

Changing the properties of a dictionary

The properties of a dictionary are its individual characteristics. Some properties, for example the dictionary structure and the size of an entry field, cannot be changed when the dictionary has been created. Others, for example which lookup panels are to display which data, can be changed.

Prerequisites

The dictionary must exist.

Calling sequence

Select:

  1. The “Dictionary List” window
  2. The dictionary from the list of dictionaries
  3. Properties… from the File menu

This takes you to the “Dictionary Properties” window.
Eqfb7s10l.gif

Figure 113. Dictionary Properties window

Options and parameters

The “Dictionary Properties” window lists the characteristics of the selected dictionary.

For an existing dictionary, only the following properties can be changed:

  • The dictionary description
  • The lookup display panel of an entry field
  • The name of an entry field

On the “General Properties” page:

  • Name
The name of the dictionary. It cannot be changed for an existing dictionary.
  • Short name
The short name of the dictionary.
  • Description
The description of the dictionary. It can be up to 255 characters long.
  • Location
Can be local (only one translator at a time can use it) or shared (several translators can use it simultaneously).
  • Disk drive
The drive where the dictionary resides. It cannot be changed for an existing dictionary.
  • Source language
The source of the dictionary, this means, the language of the terms (headwords). It cannot be changed for an existing dictionary.

On the “Entry Structure” page:

  • Entry fields
Contains the entry fields that make up the dictionary structure. For an existing dictionary you can only change the name of a field and the lookup panel number.
  • Display
Click the Panel number on which you want this entry field displayed in the “Lookup Entry” window. Omit means you do not want this entry field to be displayed at all. The entry field is not deleted from the entry structure. Aut. Lookup displays the complete entry field information in the window showing the found dictionary proposals during translation.
  • Level
Shows the level of the selected entry field. It cannot be changed for an existing entry.
  • Size
Shows the size of the selected entry field. It cannot be changed for an existing entry.

To change the name given to an entry field click Change name…. For example, you can change the name of the Headword entry field to Term. For more information on renaming entry fields seeRenaming a dictionary entry field.

To avoid unauthorized modification of a dictionary, you can protect it by clicking Protect and typing a password in the “Protect Dictionary” window. Then the dictionary can only be modified when the correct password is entered. For more detail on how to protect and unprotect dictionaries see Protecting a dictionary.

Click Change to change dictionary properties.

Results

The dictionary properties are changed according to your specifications.

Viewing the details of a dictionary

In its simplest form, the “Dictionary List” window lists all of the available dictionaries. However, if you want to see more specific details of each dictionary, you can change your view of the “Dictionary List” window to have it display individual properties, such as the source language, location, or description of a dictionary.

The details selectable for a dictionary are:

  • Name
The name of the dictionary.
  • Description
The description of the dictionary.
  • Drive
The drive on which the dictionary resides.
  • Owner
Shows who created the dictionary (if it is a shared one). If it is a local dictionary, n/a is displayed.
  • Source language
The source language of the dictionary, this means the language of the headwords.

You can toggle between two display modes:

  • Display the dictionary names only
  • Display the names and details

You can change the arrangement of the dictionary details in the “Change Details” window.

For a general description see Viewing and changing the details of a list item.

Option to select dictionary lookup for compound words in editor

User Interface

The new option can be activated or de-activated using the “Show single words of compound terms in auto-lookup” option of the Dictionary tab of the “Profile settings” dialog of the TranslationEnvironment:
DictLookup.gif

Figure 114. Dictionary Lookup

If the option is active the single words of a compound term are looked up together with the compound term. If the option is inactive the single words of a compound term are not looked up in the dictionary auto-lookup.

An example:

Assume a dictionary containing the terms “data”, “data processing”, “data processing unit”, and “unit”. If a segment contains the term “data processing unit” the dictionary window will show the translations for “data”, “data processing”, “data processing unit”, and “unit” if the option is active and “data processing unit” if the option is inactive..

Viewing style indicators for dictionary terms

The style of dictionary terms can be specified using the “Style” field ( <estyle> ) on sense level and the “Trans Style” field ( <tstyle>) on target level.

The following style values are predefined:

  • Positive styles values: “peferred”
  • Negative style values: “deprecated”, “non standard”, and “no longer used”

When a term with predefined style information is displayed in the dictionary lookup window of the TranslationEnvironment, a style indicator is displayed before the term for styles on sense level and before the term translation for styles on target level.

For the positive style values this indicator is a plus sign (‘+’) with green background. The indicator for negative style values is the minus sign (‘-‘) with red background.
Estyle.gif

Figure 115. Style indicators for dictionary terms